Apple growers continue to move toward narrower row and tree spacings and smaller-stature trees to help promote earlier production.
But with the move toward higher density plantings also come challenges.
Michigan State University Extension horticulturist Ron Perry and colleagues have produced a series of online videos to provide guidance to topics, such as tall spindle apples and vertical axe apples, according to a news release.
These two systems currently dominate the apple growing landscape, at least in Michigan.
Some of the videos show real-life mistakes made in orchards and how you can avoid those.
Their website also has articles on a wide array of subjects dealing with planting and orchard establishment.