Spyke bases his opinion on what he learned when visiting South Africa in 2006 and China in 2008, countries that both have the disease and have adopted a mandatory no-greening policy.
It’s a decision every Florida grower must make at some point once psyllid control has been exhausted and greening begins to set in.
“They need to capture as much equity in the groves as they can now,” he says, offering an example of a grower producing 500 boxes of Valencias. “You just keep doing that as long as you can. But at the point when you’re done and your existing grove has no more equity, if the decisions to keep going, then what you need to do is open hydroponics.”
The other main goal of his 5-acre test block was to gauge growth in Florida’s humid environment. Many of the techniques Spykes is using are adapted from Spain, which has an arid Mediterranean climate.
“Roots are totally dependent on what you’re dripping onto them,” he says. “But what we proved at Rock Bottom is we can achieve the same results in a high-rainfall environment. Because of Rock Bottom, everybody assumes we can do it and away we go—we’re onto the next phase, which is figuring out things for Florida.”
Putting the system to the test
Spykes’ production system caught the attention of Kelly Morgan, a soil and water scientist with the Southwest Florida Research and Education Center in Immokalee. He is experimenting with 8 acres of citrus on drip irrigation.
Morgan’s work in advanced systems is designed to address growers’ concerns about a tree’s lifespan being reduced to 10 to 15 years from 30 years. His work helped confirm that open hydroponics can work in Florida’s sandy soil, which doesn’t retain water and nutrients well.
“Growers never want to remove their trees,” he says. “They’re spraying leaves with micronutrients and nitrogen and potassium that seem to alleviate the [greening] symptoms.
“That’s a very hot debate. We’re not making the claim open hydroponics will even reduce the effects of greening. All we’re wanting to do is improve the business side of things for the grower.”
Arnold Schumann, a soil scientist at the Citrus Research and Education Center in Lake Alfred, also has looked at drip irrigation as well as micro-jets. His work showed that trees do grow faster and yield better with reduced water and nutrients.
The one issue with drip irrigation is it doesn’t provide frost protection like micro-jets do. But Schumann says if you consider drip saves 50 percent of fertigation compared with micro-jets, and micro-jets save one-third over conventional irrigation, the efficiency is hard to beat.